Divorces are of two types.
Contested, where one spouse disagrees to divorce or there is is dispute over alimony, custody of children and other issues.

Mutual consent divorce, where both spouses agree to separate.
The spouses mutually come to agreement regarding maintenance, custody of children and such issues.
LAW - mutual consent divorce
Under Section 13B of the Hindu Marriage Act, a husband and wife can file a mutual divorce only when
they have lived apart for at least a year.
The couple must jointly mention about their inability to continue the marital relationship due to some unavoidable circumstances.
Both the sides must voluntarily agree to dissolve the marriage.

Filing of mutual divorce
The filing of a mutual divorce by both the husband and the wife is termed as ‘the first motion’. A couple can file for a second motion after a gap of six months. The six months time span is provided to the couple so that they get the time to reconsider their marriage.

Can the divorce be obtained within six months without delay of one year?
Yes, if all the mandatory requirements for the divorce are sufficed.
If the divorce file is not withdrawn within eighteen months the court passes a divorce decree. Incase one of the sides withdraws his/her petition the court initiates to make an enquiry. If the concerned side disagrees to give the consent, the court holds no right to pass the divorce judgment.
1 One year
Divorce procedure in India extends for one year even when there is mutual consent.

2 Marriage Counselor
First six months you have the benefit of qualified marriage counselors in the Family Court. This is important to know because for a common person finding a qualified marriage counselor is difficult, if not impossible.

3 Divorce laws and religion
Divorce laws are different for different religions.

To know more about this click here.

For further information you may check
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Home > Health > Artificial Ovary Created with Three-dimensional Tissue Engineering
Artificial Ovary Created with Three-dimensional Tissue Engineering
Posted by TheNonpareil on 9/29/10
Categorized as Health

Artificial Ovary Created with Three-dimensional Tissue Engineering.
For the first time ever, scientists from Brown University in
Rhode Island have created in the laboratory an artificial ovary which
can function exactly like that of a woman ovary.
The study is published in the Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics.
The researchers, led by Sandra Carson, have used a technique
called three-dimensional tissue engineering, this technique is using
cells from women of childbearing age.
The artificial ovary can accommodate the immature egg cells
until they are ready to be deposited in the womb.
This will allow women who have undergone heavy chemotherapy treatments that have damaged the reproductive system to open up new possibilities for conception.Before they receive anti-cancer treatment, in fact,
the Eggs could be taken from that woman, then freezing it immediately,
and then implanted in the woman external ovary.
It’s the first real 3D engineering success says Carson.


Jayaji Krishna Nath, M.D., and Vishwarath R. Nayar
Today’s teenagers are faced with an ever-widening gap between the age at which they are physically ready to have sexual intercourse and the age at which it is culturally acceptable for them to do so.
Adolescents in India today face a number of problems related to changing value systems and social expectations. The sexual world of adolescents is becoming increasingly complex. In traditional Indian society, adolescents were initiated into their sexual roles, more or less, in a clearly defined period and by a series of ceremonies and rites. As in some other cultures, these included instruction on their sex roles, marriage customs, sexual morality, and acceptable sexual behavior. But with the influence of Western culture, the present generation of youth are facing a number of problems that are ultimately forcing them to violate the traditional norms as laid down by the society.

When Kakar and Chowdhary (1970) examined some aspects of sexual behavior among young men prior to marriage, they found that a lack of adequate information and opportunities prompted these young people to turn to literature (often pornographic), to experimentation with prostitutes, friends, or relatives of the opposite or same sex, to covert observation of sexual activities of others, and to masturbation. Reddy and his colleagues, in a 1983 study of young people, found that the sample youth had their first sexual experience between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Homosexual activities were also reported in this study: 38 percentage of women in the sample reported that their first sexual activity had been with a partner of the same sex. The Family Planning Foundation of India undertook a study in 1990 among teenagers (between 14 and 17 years) and found that about one fourth of them expressed their acceptance of premarital sexual contact, “if the boy and the girl were actually in love.” While a good number of respondents were aware of at least one contraceptive method, they had very little precise knowledge. Men were found to be more liberal in their views than women.

Mane and Maitra (1992) have rightly inferred that relatively little is known about the sexual behavior and attitudes towards different aspects and forms of sexual activity in India.” With changing conditions in India, the opportunities for risk-taking behavior among adolescents seem to be increasing. Coping with sex is a growing problem for young people. Today’s teenagers are faced with an ever-widening gap between the age at which they are physically ready to have sexual intercourse and the age at which it is culturally acceptable for them to do so. Youngsters are in fact often sandwiched between a near-obsessive preoccupation with sex in the media and a veritable wall of silence from other sources of information on the subject.




Kakar 1989
Jayaji Krishna Nath, M.D., and Vishwarath R. Nayar


Woman not pleasure, just mother
Despite new currents, very often in Indian culture, a woman’s body is not seen as an object of pride or pleasure, but as something that is made impure every day, an abode of sinfulness. Thus, a muted yet extremely powerful theme can be found in Hindu marriages: “the cultural unease, indeed, the fear of woman as woman.” Women, as reflected in popular novels and clinical practice, frequently view their sexuality as a capacity to redress a lopsided distribution of power between the sexes (Kakar 1989:13). The age-old, yet still persisting, cultural splitting of the wife into a mother and a whore, which underlies the husband-wife relationship and which explains the often contradictory Hindu views of the woman, is hardly unique to Indian culture, though it may be more pervasive here than in other cultures (Kakar 1989, 17).

The social context determines whether the woman is viewed as divine, good, or bad - as partner in ritual, as mother, or as whore. In the context of ritual, women are honored and respected. In her maternal aspect, actual or potential, woman is again a person deserving all reverence. “It is only just as a woman, as a female sexual being, that the patriarchal culture’s horror and scorn are heaped upon the hapless wife” (Kakar 1989, 17).
Jayaji Krishna Nath, M.D., and Vishwarath R. Nayar




A1, Namdeep, Barrister Nath Pai Nagar, Barrister Nath Pai Road, Opposite Cafe Coffee Day, Near Vikrant Building, Ghatkopar (East), Mumbai 400077, India


Center for Therapy, Education, Research in Sex, Marriage, Relationships


Jayaji Krishna Nath, M.D., and Vishwarath R. Nayar


Adult marriage is generally the rule in India. Usually it is expected that a husband must be in a position to earn a living and his wife must be able to run the home, which they set up after marriage. The influence of the Hindu religion has resulted in some prepuberty marriages. The vast majority of regular marriages are still parent-made, arranged marriages. Irregular marriages do occur with the increasing influence of Western concepts of romantic love in the mass media of magazines and movies. In one form of irregular marriage, the two lovers run away and stay away until they are accepted by their families, which is done as a matter of course. In a second form, known as “Intrusion,” a girl confronts her chosen husband and his parents and presses their acceptance of her by living in the house. A third form involves “forcible application of vermilion,” when a young man takes the opportunity at some fair or festival to place a vermilion scarf on his chosen girl’s head. Sometimes a betrothal ceremony takes place before the marriage proper is solemnized. Legally, marriage take place only between those who have passed the puberty stage. At the marriage ceremony, the local priest is required to officiate and prayers and offerings are made to the gods.


Due to modernization and the influence of Western culture, arranged marriages are becoming less popular and common, especially in metropolitan cities. In its place, marriages based on the couple’s choice, often crossing caste and/or religious boundaries, are becoming more common.

While sexual urges had to be subordinated to social norms in the joint-family system, except for rare rebellious behavior or outbursts, the present newly found freedom has instigated more openness and casualness in matters of sexual behavior. Expressions and feelings that would have been termed scandalous and in need of being tamed to adhere to socially accepted rules, values, and practices, are now accepted as natural.

Individualism, in its Western Euroamerican consciousness is foreign to the traditional Indian social consciousness and experience. However, this is changing. Sudhir Kakar, a distinguished psychoanalyst who has taught at the Universities of Harvard, Chicago, and Vienna, and written extensively on Indian sexuality, notes that “individualism even now stirs but faintly” in India (Kakar 1989:4).

India, with an area of 1.26 million square miles (3.29 million kilometers), is the largest democratic country in the world.
The country has about 16 percent of the world’s total population and 2.4 percent of the global land area.
India is one third the size of the United States and occupies most of the Indian subcontinent in south Asia.
Next to China, India is the most populous country in the world, with a 1995 population of 950 million.
India’s urban population accounts for 28 percent of the country’s total population.

In 1991, one third of the 12.6 million inhabitants of Bombay were homeless, living on the streets or in squatters’ camps built on putrid landfills. Bombay, India’s most populous city, has 100,000 people per square kilometer.

Jayaji Krishna Nath, M.D., and Vishwarath R. Nayar





Mother's love is deeper than ocean,

Mother's lesson is bigger than the sky,

Mother's sacrifice is greater than God,

Mother's lap is more comfortable than the warm bed,

Mother's tale is better than the best novel on this earth,

Mother's picture is more beautiful than a fascinating scenery,

Mother's blessings are more powerful than the thousands of seas,

Mother's shade is cooler than the shade of heavy laden trees,

Mother's light is brighter than the sun,

Mother's role is seventy times greater than the father,

Mother's place is more sacred than any shrine,

Mother's care higher than the heaven.


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